Saturday, March 19, 2011

The history of English winemaking.

UK vineyard locations today

Many are surprised to hear of wine production in England. Very little of the wine ever makes it out of the UK. Sommeliers around the world typically have no opportunity to taste these wines unless they pay a visit to the regions themselves. So when people read about the wines of England they naturally think this is a relatively new development. But a reading of the history of English winemaking below will definitely surprise most and change opinions…
Roman amphora discovered in Kent, England

The first wine production in what is now England occurred during Roman times, about 2000 years ago. Oxford Archaeology has discovered many artifacts telling of the consumption of wine throughout the Roman era, including an amphora from BC times (see above). The small-scale winemaking enterprise was welcomed among the conquered: they had developed an appreciation for wine due to the importation of the beverage from the Belgae before Roman occupation. But some historians believe that the production was, in fact, so small-scale that hardly any wine was produced at all, and that the ceremonial tending of the vineyards and making of the wine was more a remnant of the homesickness of the Romans than an actual productive business.

Conquest of the Normans

The departure of the Romans and the subsequent Dark Ages mostly resulted in these small vineyards falling into disuse and disrepair. The adoption of Christianity under King Alfred encouraged a bit of winemaking to produce wine for the church, but more widespread interest didn’t begin until the entrance of the Normans in 1066.

By the time of the Norman conquest vines were certainly grown in quantities that allowed a significant amount of wine production. Evidence abounds throughout cities in England of the importance of wines (street names such as Vine Street, for example). The Normans were heavy drinkers who enjoyed wine in particular, and their skills as winemakers were finely honed. The Domesday Book reported 46 vineyards in the south of England in 1085-1086, and English production nearly matched imports in volume. Of these only 12 were tended by monasteries. The rest were property of noblemen, producing wine for their personal pleasure. At this time wine was being produced in the coastal area in the southeast and in an area including present-day Somerset, Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, and Worcestershire.

Thereafter the number of vineyards suddenly declined. There is a popular debate regarding a potential climate change that may have taken place during the Norman times that might explain this demise. Some say that the summers became colder and winters became warmer, and that the climate in general became wetter, making grape growing a much more difficult task. Others attribute the change in vineyard land to the dissolution of the monasteries by Henry VIII in 1536. Still others point to the change in agriculture following the Black Plague due to a dramatic drop in population. Importation of the wines of Bordeaux, Champagne, Germany, and Portugal may have had an effect as well. By the late 1300s more than half of all the wine in Bordeaux was loaded onto British ships and sold within England. Unfortunately we have very few records to help us figure out the exact reason or combination of events that led to the fall in vineyard acreage.

A tavern frequented by wine drinkers in 18th century England

In the 17th century and onward there was once again a rise in wine production, mostly due to private enterprise. A few influential figures were key in boosting the home industry such as the Hon. Charles Hamilton in 1740, who developed the vineyards at Painshill Park in Surrey which has been recently restored. John Tradescant planted 20,000 vines on the estate of Lord Salisbury in Hartfordshire. The Marquis of Bute planted vines at Castell Coch in South Wales in the late 19th century, considered to be the last great experiment in viticulture prior to the modern period. His wine was not thought of as the finest: a joke existed about it, posing the question “How many men does it take to drink a glass of the Marquis’ wine?” The answer is 3: one to drink the wine, and two more to hold him down while he does. After World War I a labor shortage hit the wine industry heavily, leaving many vineyards untended for years.

Wrotham Pinot Noir, discovered by Edward Hyams

The modern revival can be traced to a couple of influential figures. Ray Barrington Brock, a research chemist, developed a research lab in Surrey where he experimentally planted over 600 grape varietals to study their growth in the English soils and climate over a period of 25 years. He introduced the relatively well-faring Muller-Thurgau (Riesling Sylvaner) and Seyval Blanc (Seyve Villard) to the English countryside. Edward Hyams, a writer and journalist, used his skills to popularize viticulture, winemaking, and wine consumption. He collaborated with Brock in Surrey and discovered a number of “native” vines still growing in England, including Wrotham Pinot (an interesting clone of Pinot Noir, cultivated a little now in California). George Ortish, another who impacted England’s wine industry, studied horticulture in Champagne and upon returning to his native Kent realized the similarity of the region to Champagne. He planted a vineyard in 1938 and proved himself to be an excellent winemaker.

Major General Sir Guy Salisbury-Jones in his vineyard

The first modern 100% commercial vineyard was planted by Major-General Sir Guy Salisbury-Jones in 1951. A few others slowly followed suit, planting mostly Seyval Blanc and Muller-Thurgau after the recommendations of Brock’s research. The period immediately after 1976 saw a huge boom in vineyard land for winemaking. Currently the growth has slowed, and there are 1,215 hectares planted today.

During the last couple decades sparkling wines, roses, and oak-aged reds have become the norm of English production. Germanic-style fruity, easy to drink quaffers are slowly being replaced by more serious examples, though grapes such as Huxelrebe and Scheurebe still constitute a large amount of production. Beside those, Chardonnay, Ortega, and Optima constitute most of the white blends. As for red varietals, Rondo, Dornfelder, Pinot Noir, and Pinot Meunier are favorites. A comprehensive list of varietals grown commonly can be found here. In addition, the Quality Wine Scheme (England’s AOC, DOC, or AVA setup) can be found here.

I visited Kent recently to do a bit of wine tasting myself. I'll post a couple of writeups of some Kentish vineyards over the next week.

Saturday, March 12, 2011


It’s a strange feeling to drive along through the countryside of Yadkin Valley in North Carolina and encounter Raffaldini’s villa that appears to be straight out of Tuscany. It certainly brings one’s attention to the similarity of the rolling hills and picturesque vistas of this region to the Italian countryside itself. And this is exactly why the Raffaldini family chose to establish their winery here, in the seemingly unlikely AVA of Swan Creek.

The Raffaldini family hails from Lombardy, from a town just south of Verona. In the 1950s they began exploring sites in the United States to start a vineyard. An exhaustive search was undertaken through the whole country including the now booming wine regions of California and Oregon. But the similarity of the land in Swan Creek to southern Italy (indeed, the latitude of this region is shared by Sicily: 36.14 N for Yadkin, 36.53 N for the middle of Sicily) was enough to anchor the family here.

The Raffaldini family bought their vineyards in Swan Creek in 2001. Since then, they have experimented with more than 30 different varietals. Their most successful thus far seem to be Montepulciano and Vermentino, but experimental planting is still being undertaken.

The soil quality is excellent in Swan Creek: vineyards lying in the mountainous areas are planted on rocky, schist-based soils with northeast exposure. A pretty much continuous breeze slightly lessens the fear of downy and powdery mildew, the region’s worst plights. The climate is a little cooler and drier here than in the rest of Yadkin Valley necessitating a separate AVA and allowing central and southern Italian varietals a chance to flourish. Yields are kept around 5 tons per hectare. Clusters are turned by hand to induce an even exposure. When sprays must be used, the choice at Raffaldini is organic and natural spray whenever possible. Time consuming multiple pass hand harvesting is done every year to ensure optimal ripeness of every bunch.

Raffaldini's Thomas Salley

A recent article of mine appeared on Terroirist (, “Rediscovering North Carolina’s Wines”) discussing the difficulty of getting people to think of North Carolina as a serious wine producing region, including an interview of RagApple Lassie's Linda King. Thomas Salley, the tasting room manager at Raffaldini, had a bit to say about the hardships of being an up-and-coming region as well:

Q: What is the typical response to the idea of North Carolina as a wine producing region?
A: Most people are pleasantly surprised. North Carolina was once the top producer of wine in the United States prior to prohibition.

Q: What particular difficulties have you had in marketing/promoting your wines?
A: One overall challenge has been education. As stated in the previous question, we have to explain why NC is a good wine region and then help people tell the difference between the variety of wines that we have here (e.g. muscadine, vinifera, scuppernong).

Q: What measures do you undertake to try to overcome the stigmas associated with this region? Or do you have interest in doing so?
A: We work hard to stay true to our focus and passion which is producing the best possible central to southern-style Italian wines. Therefore we shy away from trying to produce a wide variety of wines to suit every palate.

Q: Are you looking to expand distribution when the wines begin to be well-received outside the state?
A: We are currently producing around 6,000 cases annually with an eventual goal of producing 10,000 cases. Most of our sales are direct to consumer and while many of our clients reside in NC, we have many others who pass through on interstate trips or also have our wine shipped to them based on the referral of a friend or relative or a past experience here at the winery. This has led us to some expanded distribution, but as our sales are mainly DTC, this is simply a function of our business model.

Here are the wines we tasted in the villa's tasting room with Thomas:

2009 Raffaldini Pinot Grigio
Minerally and citrusy on the nose. Excellent acidity with a medium finish. Nothing spectacular, but pleasant and drinkable.

2009 Raffaldini Vermentino
Again, very noticeable clayey minerality. All citrus and peaches on the finish. Simple but refreshing, and probably very good for pairing.

2008 Raffaldini Bellamisto
This Bordeaux blend showed heightened minerality again. On the palate, bright ripe cherries, rich dark fruit, and a hint of a complex earthiness.

2008 Raffaldini Oenotroia
A little jammy but delicious! Dark purple fruit and an interesting note of slate. A very long finish. Excellent acidity adds to this wine’s elegance.

Winemaker Stephen Rigby giving us excellent information as well as some fantastic wines

After tasting in the tasting room, we moved to the cellar to do some tank and barrel sampling with the winemaker Stephen Rigby (who unfortunately left Raffaldini shortly after our visit to move to Pennsylvania). This was the real treat… some of the wines that have yet to be bottled are absolutely fantastic.

From the tanks:

2010 Raffaldini Vermentino
Rich peaches and Meyer lemon. This is one of the best Vermentinos I have EVER tasted. I was completely shocked! I will certainly buy a case of this when it’s bottled, and I recommend the same to anyone!

2010 Raffaldini Pinot Gris
This is a wild ferment. Excellent acidity, hints of wet rocks and baking spices. Another astonishing wine.

From the barrels:

2009 Raffaldini Merlot
Candy cherries and peppery spice! Medium velvety tannins finish this wine off nicely. A long soft finish adds to the enticement. An excellent wine.

2009 Raffaldini Sangiovese, Brunello clone
Red cherry and strawberry fruit on the nose. This is an amazingly reserved wine that opens up explosively on the palate. I recommend this one highly.

I was much more impressed by the wines yet to be bottled than those I tasted in the tasting room. When I asked the winemaker about this, he reminded me that winemaking here has really only been underway for 7 years. Each year as their knowledge of the land and the grapes improves, they are able to produce more elegant, terroir-driven wines. Keep your eyes on this winery… Raffaldini’s wines will only improve, and may turn out to be some of the best examples of Italian varietals in the US…

To set up a visit or inquire about ordering and shipping wines, go to Raffaldini’s website or email Thomas Salley.